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故宫回应夜场常态化:或结合24节气推出夜场活动

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 南安石企抱团发展 建转型升级综合平台 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

官方出手,海外避税行不通了!不只是查有钱人

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

我们发展出人工记录声音的技术已经有几十年了,但是人工植入器官在耳朵这一领域没有任何改变。你可能认为生长在头两边的肉块极易替换,因为它们只是皮和软骨,而不是复杂的器官。事实上,科学家在制作假耳上并没有做得非常出色。传统的替代耳朵看起来或感觉起来都像塑料玩具。
We Pay Attention … Selectively
单词facilitate 联想记忆:
年龄:45岁
4. 马克·特纳四重奏(Mark Turner Quartet),《天堂里的车床》(Lathe of Heaven), ECM。这是次中音萨克斯手马克·特纳13年来第一次以领队身份推出专辑,他喜欢同小号手阿维沙伊·科恩(Avishai Cohen)奏出流畅的互动,在后波普规范中发现全新意义。他的作曲中有纯粹的神秘,由乔伊·马丁(Joe Martin)担任贝斯手,马库斯·基尔默(Marcus Gilmore)担任鼓手的节奏组亦是一丝不苟。
我曾见过的超级优秀的老板们,都对他们的工作极具热情,他们同工作共生活共呼吸,尽最大努力将工作做到最好。与此同时,他们还有工作之外的生活。他们懂得家庭和工作或者玩和工作之间的平衡度。他们为员工们如何做到生活和工作之间平衡做了一个很好的表率。
As well as dancing, she has her eye on singing and acting - she has already acted in the TV shows Drop Dead Diva and Austin & Ally.

单词calendar 联想记忆:
巴韦贾同意这一结论,他指出,韩国和另一个大宗商品净进口国印度,都是成品油的出口国。以美元计算,这些成品油的价值今年应会上升。
中国富豪的账面财富突然暴涨,乃至此前不为人知的大亨一跃成名,都不是什么稀罕事,在股市上市和其他公开投资会将他们一下子推到聚光灯下。
你如何知道你需要喝水了?这有一系列的诱因:嘴唇发干、头晕、头痛、尿量低和口渴。然而,这种智能瓶能在你的身体意识到缺水前就提醒你。
中国手机制造巨头华为发布了业务预期,在2016年,其智能手机发货量达到了1.39亿台,同比增长29%,而全球手机出货量的同比增长仅为0.6%。

Footnotes

  • 房地产市场进入“分化” 楼市调控牵一发动全身
  • Company: Samasource

Will the Federal Reserve's path out of bond buying get bumpy?
5.播音员
On Monday night, Ankara confirmed that the Dutch ambassador would not be welcome to return to Turkey.
Lawrence Yun, the trade group's chief economist, expects the average 30-year fixed-rate mortgage to hit 5.5% at year-end, up from 4.5% late last year and 3.5% in the first half of 2013. That's a sharp runup in a short period of time, one that could harm affordability and spook even more buyers.
strengthen
卡尔说:“如果要打赌的话,我赌今年比去年更热。”

二线楼市排队涨价,这两个城市也要火了

References

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